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Chapter 44

Geographic Variations of Nonmailignant Diseases in the Tropics


The literature on the geographic distribution of disease and the underlying social and economic background is vast, comprehensive, and often elusive. This bibliography will provide initial sources of reading and is not meant to be comprehensive. Many older references have been retained because they contain much wisdom and sound advice, even though methods of imaging and treatment have changed and there is better understanding of many illnesses. Many of these references are from the African literature, which reflects personal experience. A similar extensive list can be compiled for any part of the world.

General Bibliography

Bahrani J: Race, ethnicity, culture and science (editorial). BMJ 309:284-285, 1994.

Blanchard RJW, et al: The epidemiology and spectrum of surgical care in district hospitals in Pakistan. Am J Public Health 77:1639-1645, 1987.

Bremner CG: The changing pattern of disease seen in Baragwanath hospital. S Afr Med J 46:127-131, 1971.

Browne SG: Research in a bush hospital in Africa. Trop Doct 6:187-189, 1976.

Burkitt DP: Some diseases characteristic of modern Western civilization. A possible common causative factor. Clin Radiol 24:271-280, 1973.

Chaturvedi N, et al: Differences in mortality and morbidity in African, Caribbean and European people with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: results of a 20 year follow up of a London cohort of a multinational study. BMJ 313:848-852, 1996.

Chikanza IC, et al: Disseminated intravascular clotting as a possible cuase of death in severe measles. Cent Afr Med J 27:26-29, 1981.

Davey WW: Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1968.

Davies JN: Primitive autopsies and background to scientific medicine in Central Africa. N Y Med J 65:2830-2836, 1965.

De Cook KM, et al: Tropical medicine for the 21st century. BMJ 311:860-862, 1995.

DeWolf E: Abdominal emergencies. Trop Doct 16:129-131, 1986.

Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995.

Fitzpatrick S, et al: Health care needs of Indochinese refugee teenagers. Pediatrics 79:118-124, 1987.

Gelfand M: The pattern of disease in Africa and the western way of life. Cent Afr Med J 21:145-152, 1975.

Gelfand M: African customs in relation to preventative medicine. Cent Afr J Med 27:1-8, 1980.

Gilbert L, et al: Ethnic differences in the outcome of screening for Down's syndrome. BMJ 312:94-95, 1996.

Gould GC (ed): Health and Disease in Africa. Proc. 1970 East Afr Med Research Sci Conf. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1971.

Hanegraf TAC, Oomen HAPC (eds): Medical research in Kenya. Trop Geogr Med 29:S51-S60, 1977.

Iliff PJ: Neonatal surgery in Harare Hospital (Zimbabwe). Cent Afr J Med 36:11-15, 1990.

Kale R: Traditional healers in South Africa. A parallel health care system. BMJ 310:1182-1185, 1995.

Lopez AD: Counting the dead in China. Measuring tobacco's impact in the developing world (editorial). BMJ 317:1399-1400, 1998.

Loro A, Franceschi F, Dal Lago A: Macrodystrophica lipomatosa, A case report. Ethiop Med J 33:187-192, 1995.

Mabonga N, et al: Initial experience with an endemic disease register. Cent Afr J Med 21:5-8 (pt 1); 28-37 (pt 2); 57-59 (pt 3), 1975.

Mirza NM, et al: Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining the cause of death in a community. East Afr Med J 67:693-698, 1990.

Mughal MZ, et al: Florid rickets associated with prolonged breast feeding without vitamin D supplementationi BMJ 318:39-40, 1999.

Munyaradzi OM: The African attitude to disease. Cent Afr J Med 21:137-139, 1975.

Nordberg E: Surgical operations in Eastern Africa: a review. East Afr Med J 67 (Suppl), 1980.

O'Donovan C: Measles in Kenyan children. East Afr Med J 48:525-532, 1971.

Onuba 0: lpsilateral axillary nerve palsy and corneal ulceration complicating severe measles. Cent Afr J Med 36:23-24, 1990.

Ooman L: Disease pattern in Ukambani, Kenya. East Afr Med J 53:341-349, 1976.

Ower R, et al (eds): The Child in the African Environment. Proc 1974 Ann Sci Conf East Afr Med Research Council. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1975.

Palmer PES, McGlashan NV. Geographical pathology for radiologists. Australas Radiol 17:367-370, 1973.

Palmer PES, Rothman WT: Case reports from an African hospital. Br J Radiol 35:492-495, 1962.

Patel KM, Lwanga SK: A study of medical admissions to Mulago Hospital, Kampala. East Afr Med J 48:76-87, 1971.

Rosee G, Barker DJP, Coggan D: Epidemiology for the Uninitiated, 3rd edn. BMJ, London, 1993.

Saunders CR:.Report on a black mamba bite of a medical colleague. Cent Afr J Med 26:121-122, 1980.

Scrimshaw NS: The relation between fetal malnutrition and chronic disease later in life (editorial). BMJ 315:825-826, 1997.

Senior PA, Bhopal R: Ethnicity as a variable in epidemiological research. BMJ 309:327-330, 1994.

Sinha DP, et al: Measles and malnutrition in a West Bengal village. Trop Geogr Med 29:125-134, 1977.

Slabbert NP, Buys BJ: Upper limb deformities due to barred splitting cobra bite. Bone Joint Surg [Br] 61:259-260, 1979.

Stanfield P, et al: Diseases of Children in the Subtropics and Tropics, 4th edn. Edward Arnold, London, 1991.

Stroughton RR: Childhood survival in the Bikita trust land. Cent Afr J Med 21:10-12, 1975.

Tafesse B: Analysis of admissions to the Ethiop-Swedish paediatric clinic. Ethiop Med J 11:3-13, 1973.

Vogel LC, et al: Health and Disease in Kenya. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1974.

Westcott GM, Stott RAP: The extent and cause of malnutrition in the Isolo district of the Transkei. S Afr Med J 52:963-968, 1977.

WHO: Notes and news. World Health Forum 18:374, 1997.

Laboratory Standards: Parasitic Infestation

Brown RE, et al: The incidence of anaemia, splenomegaly, hookworm and malaria in primary school children in Uganda. East Afr Med J 47:302-318, 1970.

Bruce-Tagoe AA, et al: Haematological values in a rural Ghanaian population. Trop Geogr Med 29:237-244, 1977.

Cross JH: Parasitic infections in humans in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Trop Geogr Med 28:121-130, 1976.

Davey WW. Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1968.

Ezeilo GC: Normal haematological values in adult Zambians. East Afr Med J 49:94-100, 1972.

Floyd JH, et al: Observations on incidence and etiology of diarrheal disease in Egyptian adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:812-819, 1956.

Forsyth DM: Anaemia in Zanzibar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 64:601-607, 1970.

French TJ, Crozier DE: A retrospective study of anaemia at Harari hospital, Salisbury (Rhodesia) 1973. Cent Afr J Med 22:39-42 (pt 1); 81-83 (pt 2), 1976.

Goldsmid JM: Ascariasis in Rhodesia. Cent Afr J Med 22:220-223, 1976.

Goldsmid JM, et al: The transmission of blood parasites via blood transfusion. Cent Afr J Med 20:23-30, 1974.

Kinoti GK: The prevalence of helminth infection in the Kisumu area of Kenya. East Afr Med J 48:490-495, 1971.

Markin KW, Howells DPM: Haematological values in an adult Gambia population. West Afr Med J 21:159-160, 1972.

Pickells E: Beetles in the intestine. In: The Transactions of the King's and Queen's College of Physicians of Ireland. Quoted by Watson T, in: Lectures and the principles and practice of physic (lecture LXXIV), 1843. Reprinted by Henry C. Lea, Philadelphia, 1866, p 953.

Wells WH, Blagg W: Survey of human intestinal parasites in a fishing village of northern Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:266-268, 1956.

Alimentary Tract

Adelosa AD: Intestinal obstruction in Africa - a challenge. West Afr Med J 17:185-188, 1968.

Amure BO, Eleghe RA: Aspects of gastric ulceration in Nigeria. West Afr Med J 23:15-18, 1975.

Arbab BMO, Hassan MA: Peptic ulcer in Khartoum Civilian Hospital. Trop Doct 6:112-113, 1976.

Attah CA, Anikwe RM: Obstructed hernias in Nigeria. NY State J Med 82:305-308, 1982.

Awori NW, et al: Causes of chronic diarrhea in Kenya and their relationship to ulcerative colitis. East Afr Med J 49:604-613, 1972.

Billinghurst JR, Welchman JM: Idiopathic colitis in the African: a report of 4 cases. BMJ 5481:211-213, 1966

Bjarnason I, et al: Vindaloo and you. BMJ 297:1629-1630, 1988.

Bowesman C: Intussusception in West Africa. In: Surgery and Pathology in the Tropics. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1960.

Bremner CG, Ackerman LV: Polyps and carcinoma of the large bowel in the South African Bantu. Cancer 26:991-999, 1970.

Brozin IH, et al: Perforated duodenal ulder in black patients. S Afr Med J 52:186-190, 1977.

Burkitt DP: Varicose Veins, deep thrombosis and haemorrhoids. Epidemiology and suggested aetiology. BMJ 2:556-561, 1972.

Bwibo NO: Congenital pyloric stenosis in African infants: a report of 19 cases in Uganda. East Afr Med J 47:395-401, 1970.

Calder JF: Diverticular disease of the colon in Africans. BMJ 1:1465-1466, 1979.

Calder JP, Wasunna AEO: Diverticular disease of the colon in rural Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J 55:579-581, 1978.

Calder JF, et al: Diverticular disease, carcinoma of the colon and diet in urban and rural Kenyan Africans. Diagn Imaging Clin Med 42:23-28, 1980.

Chan CC, et al: Colonic diverticulosis in Hong Kong; distribution, pattern and clinical significance. Clin Radiol 53:842-844, 1998.

Chapman JA: Intussusception in Rhodesian Africans: a contrast with the accepted clinical picture. J Pediatri Surg 8:43-47, 1973.

Cobe GJ: Caecocolic intussusception in lbadan (Nigeria). Br J Surg 53:415-420, 1966.

Collins L, Lapiere D: Freedom at midnight. Pan Books, London, 1977, p 46.

Davey WW: Intussusception and Volvulus. In: Davey WW (ed) Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1968, pp 228-246.

Davey WW: The giving of purgatives and enemata. In: Davey WW (ed) Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1968, pp 263-265.

Easman CO: A symposium on intestinal obstruction in Africa (including Ibadan, Accra, Sierra Leone and Lagos). West Afr Med J 17:185-201, 1968.

Eriksen CA, Skipper D, Jackson BT: Pica. BMJ 305:202, 1992.

Floyd JH, et al: Observations on incidence and etiology of diarrheal disease in Egyptian adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:812-819, 1956.

Forgacs I: Clinical gastroenterology: recent advances. BMJ 310:113-116, 1995.

Gatumbi I, Roy AD: The prevalence of peptic ulcer dyspepsia in a rural African community in Kenya. East Afr Med J 42:627-633, 1970.

Gelfand M: Haematemesis in the African: a comparison of the two main causes after a 10 year interval. Cent Afr Med J 20:115-119, 1974.

Gogler H: Hernia in rural Togo (West Africa). West Afr Med J 22:64-66, 1973.

Hancock BD: A review of gastro-duodenal pathology in Busoga district, Uganda. East Afr Med J 48:103-106, 1971.

Jain SP: Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in African infants in Somalia and Ethiopia. East Afr Med J 54:332-337, 1977.

Jenkins DJA: Helicobacter pylori and its interaction with risk factors for chronic disease (editorial). BMJ 315:1481-1482, 1997.

Johnson A, Adekunle 00: Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 28:191-193, 1978.

Joly BM, Thomas HO: Non-infantile idiopathic intussusception in Western Nigeria. West Afr Med J 3:1-5, 1954.

Jones ME, et al: Ulcerative colitis in an African: a fatal case in Tanzania. East Afr Med J 54:670-673, 1977.

Kark AE, Rundle WJ: The pattern of intussusception in Africans in Natal (South Africa). Br J Surg 48:296-302, 1960.

Kaschula ROC: Malnutrition and intestinal malabsorption. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 985-1030.

Klein A, et al: Racial significance in pyloric stenosis. S Afr Med J 44:1131-1132, 1970.

Kopur V, Kulshreshtha R, Baijal V: The case of the knotty string (case of the month). Br J Radiol 67:105-106, 1994.

Kuruvilla TT, et al: Intussusception in infancy and childhood. Trop Geogr Med 40:342-346, 1988.

Lennard-Jones JE: Clues to the elucidation of Crohn's disease. Trans Coll Med S Afr 40:34-41, 1996.

Lewis EA, Bohrer SP: Gastric outlet obstruction in adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr Med J 19:59-64, 1970.

Lindtjorn B: Akutt abdomen in Africa. Fiddskrift for Norsk Largforening 102:362-364, 1982.

Manzano C, Barrera JL: Stenosis of the colon. Pediatr Radiol 5:148-153, 1977.

McAdam JW: A three year review of intestinal obstruction. Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda (1958-1960). East Afr Med J 38:536-541, 1961.

Moffat HJ, Gelfand M: Diverticulosis in a Rhodesian African male. Cent Afr J Med 20:188-190, 1974.

Mow TK, Kwi NG: Diverticular disease of the colon amongst West Malaysians. Australas Radiol 19:47-51, 1975.

Oduntan SO: Bilateral non-inflammatory parotid gland enlargement in Nigerian children. East Afr Med J 49:380-386, 1972.

Olurin PO: Necrotizing jejunitis. East Afr Med J 47:319-326, 1970.

Painter NS, Burkitt DP: Diverticular disease of the colon: a deficiency disease of Western civilization. BMJ 2:450-454, 1971.

Peh WCG, et al: Ileo-ileocolic intussusception in children: diagnosis and significance. Br J Radiol 70:891-896, 1997.

Piscane A, et al: Breast feeding and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: population based case-control study. BMJ 312: 745-746,1996.

Rajapakse S: Beetle marasmus. BMJ 283:1316-1317, 1981.

Rep BH, Shaba JK: Some notes about the occurrence of intestinal parasites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. East Afr Med J 53:160-163, 1976.

Sealey BJ, Gelfand M: Ulcerative colitis in an African. Cent Afr J Med 14:173-175, 1968.

Shija JK: Inguinal hernia in Dar es Salaam. East Afr Med J 49:531-536, 1972.

Solanke TF, Antia AU: Peptic ulcer in Nigerian children. West Afr Med J 17:110-114, 1968.

Spencer ST, Nhomoli AM: Ulcerative colitis in East Africans: a report of 3 cases. East Afr Med J 49:163-169, 1972.

Stein CM, Levy LM: Ulcerative colitis in East Africa. A report of 3 cases. Cent Afr Med J 28:263-265, 1982.

Stein H: Necrotizing enterocolitis in black neonates. S Afr Med J 51-199-202, 1977.

Tovey FL, Tunstall M: Progress report on duodenal ulcer in black populations in Africa, south of the Sahara. Gut 16:564-571, 1975.

Trevett AJ, Lalloo DG, Kevan IM: A piscatorial epistle. BMJ 305:1578-1579, 1992.

Tumours of the alimentary tract in Africans, monograph 25. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, 1967.

Waldeyes A, et al: Intussusception in Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 10:95-103, 1972.

Wapnick S, et al: Aetiological factors related to intestinal volvulus. Cent Afr J Med 21:49-53, 1975.

Warambo MW: Acute volvulus of the small intestine. East Afr Med J 48:209-212, 1971.

Wells WH, Blagg W. Survey of human intestinal parasites in a fishing village of northern Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:266-268, 1956.

White JA, Palmer PES: The radiology of intestinal obstruction in Rhodesia. Clin Radiol 14:211-218, 1963.

Wicks ACB: Pancreatic calcification in Rhodesian Africans. Cent Afr J Med 19:189-193, 1973.

Yang WT, Evans RM, Chung SC: Case of the month. Br J Radiol 67:1033-1034, 1994.

Yordanov YS, Stroyanov SK: The incidence of hernias on the island of Pemba. East Afr Med J 46:657-658, 1969.

Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, and Spleen

Amolio-Odhiambo PB, Kamidgo NO: Gallbladder diseases and adult obstructive jaundice at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J 53:74-81, 1976.

Banwell JG, et al: Exocrine pancreatic disease and the malabsorption syndrome in tropical Africa. Gut 8:388-401, 1967.

Burnett W: The epidemiology of gallstones. Tijdschr Gastroenterol 14:78-89, 1971.

Coakley AJ, Raight EP: Liver scanning in the diagnosis of hepatoma. Br J Radiol 53:538-543, 1980.

Diabetes. The report of the International Diabetes Foundation, 1993.

Gelfand M: The incidence of gallstones in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr Med J 27:46-47, 1981.

Goldberg MD, et al: The prevalence of glycosuria and diabetes amongst Indians and Bantu. S Afr Med J 43:733-738, 1969.

Islam N: Splenic abscess. J Trop Med Hyg 70:153-155, 1967.

Kajubi SK: The clinical presentation of chronic pancreatic disease (Uganda). East Afr Med J 47:597-603, 1970.

Levin I, Wapnick S: Cholelithiasis, diverticular disease and hiatus hernia in a Rhodesian African. Cent Afr J Med 18:25-27, 1972.

Mahaderan R: Pancreatic lithiasis. BMJ 2:625-629, 1961.

Ndugwa CM, Sebikari SRK: Chronic pancreatic disease in Ugandan children. East Afr Med J 53:475-479, 1976.

Oomen L: Hepatosplenomegaly in Machakos district. East Afr Med J 47:616-621, 1970.

Owor R: The pathological features of chronic pancreatic disease in Uganda. East Afr Med J 47:604-611, 1970.

Owor R: Pathological aspects of schistosomiasis in Uganda with particular reference to West Nile. East Afr Med J 48:399-405, 1971.

Praveen TLN, et al: Role of interventional radiology in the management of complications of tropical pancreatitis. S 237, Proc 18th Int Cong Radiology, Singapore, 1994.

Rizk H, et al: Prevalence of viral markers to hepatitis B, C and delta viruses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Egyptians. Abstract: 8th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Lausanne, May, 1997.

Sajoe AS, Edington GM: The histopathology of the spleen of patients with the tropical splenomegaly syndrome in lbadan. West Afr Med J 21:168-171, 1972.

Sang Y, et al: Choledochal cyst: report of five cases. Clin Radiol 20:332-336, 1969.

Schoental R, Coady A: The hepatotoxicity of some Ethiopian and East African plants, including some used in traditional medicine. East Afr Med J 45:546-550, 1968.

Shaper AG: The aetiology of chronic pancreatic fibrosis with calcification seen in Uganda. BMJ 5398:1607-1609, 1964.

Uflacker J, et al: Parasitic and mycotic causes of biliary obstruction. Gastrointest Radiol 7:173-179, 1982.

Warambo MW: Hydatid disease of the spleen. East Afr Med J 47:286-287, 1970.

Wicks ACR, Fleming JBM: Acute pancreatitis in Rhodesian Africans. Cent Afr J Med 20:115-119, 1974.

Ziegler JL, et al: Immunological studies on the tropical splenomegaly syndrome in Uganda (abstract). East Afr Med J 47:190, 1970.

Zuidema PJ: Cirrhosis and disseminated calcification of the pancreas in patients with malnutrition. Trop Geogr Med 11:70-74, 1970.

Genitourinary System

Ampofo DA: The training of traditional birth attendants in Ghana. Trop Geogr Med 29:197-203, 1977.

Ashworth FL: Urinary-vagina fistulae. A series of 152 patients treated in a small hospital in Ghana. West Afr Med J 22:39-43, 1973.

Bell GM, Dekleck JN: Tuberkulose can die penis (corpora cavernosa). S Afr Med J 50:1489-1490, 1976.

Chatfield WR, et al: The investigation and management of infertility in East Africa. A prospective study of 200 cases. East Afr Med J 47:212-216, 1970.

Chen PCY: Incorporating the traditional birth attendant into the health team: the Malayan example. Trop Geogr Med 29:192-196, 1977.

Female genital mutilation: is it crime or culture? The Economist 13 Feb 1999, pp 45-46.

Gelfand M: Urinary calculi in the African and European of Zimbabwe. Cent Afr Med J 26:254-256, 1980.

Grosskurth H, et al: Asymptomatic gonorrhea and cholangial infections in rural Tanzanian men. BMJ 312:277-280, 1996.

Harverson G, Parry BR: Dermoid cysts. Trop Doct 12:123-124, 1982.

Lagundoye SB, et al: Pelvic bone changes in vesico-vaginal fistula. West Afr Med J 23:141-145, 1975.

McLigeyo SO: The nephrotic syndrome in the tropics (editorial). East Afr Med J 67:377-378, 1990.

Meniru GI: Female circumcision amongst the Igbos of Nigeria. Nig J Med 1:55-60, 1991.

Meniru GI: Female genital mutilation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 101:832-833, 1994.

Mustafa AZ: Female circumcision and infibulation in the Sudan. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Comm Wlth 73:302-306, 1966.

Nkata M: Ruptured uterus: a review of 32 cases in a general hospital in Zambia. BMJ 312:1204-1205, 1996.

Onuora VC, Chiedozi LC: Testicular infarction complicating strangulated inguinal herniae in Nigerian children. Trop Geogr Med 45:129-130, 1993.

Osegbe DN, Avogundade RA: The changing pattern of urethral strictures in Nigerians. Nig Postgrad Med J 1:1-5, 1994.

Siegel MJ, McAlister WH, Shackleford CD: Radiographic findings in ovarian teratoma in children. Am J Roentgenol 313:613-618, 1978.

Sule-Odu AO, Fakoya TA, Adetoro OO: Destructive obstetric operations at the university hospital in Nigeria. Nig Postgrad Med J 3:43-45, 1996.

Tonks A: Pregnancy's toll in the developing world. BMJ 308:353-354, 1994.

Wesolowski DP, Meaney TF: The use of a vaginal tampon in the diagnosis of vesico-vaginal fistula. Radiology 122:262, 1977.

Chest and Cardiovascular System

Abegaz A: The pattern of cardiac disease in an Ethiopian childrens hospital. Ethiop Med J 26:1-7, 1988.

Akinugbe OO: High blood pressure in the African. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1972.

Alexander CJ: The epidemiology of varicose veins. Med J Aust 1:215-218, 1972.

Appfel CA: Neonatal uvulectomy. JAMA 193:158-159, 1965.

Bhana D, Baddeley H: Idiopathic gangrene. East Afr Med J 47:506-514, 1970.

Connett GJ, Lee BW: Treating childhood asthma in Singapore. Where west meets east. BMJ 308:1282-1284, 1994.

Daniel E, Abegaz B: Profile of cardiac disease in an out patient cardiac clinic (Ethiopia). Trop Geogr Med 45:121-123, 1993.

Dhall DP, et al: Pulmonary embolic disease in Kenya. East Afr Med J 53:202-211, 1976.

Edington GM, et al: Symmetrical gangrene. In: Edington GM (ed) Pathology in the Tropics. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1969, p 337.

French Tj, Crozier DE: A retrospective study of anaemia at Harari Hospital, Salisbury (Rhodesia), 1973. Cent Afr J Med 22:39-42 (pt 1); 81-83 (pt 2), 1976.

Grillo A: Bronchiectasis in Nigerians. Afr J Med Sci 3:213-222, 1972.

Hiller HG: A year's survey of paediatric chest x-rays in the Alice Springs Hospital. Australas Radiol 19:32-35, 1975.

Ibrahim M: Hypertension in Egypt. Quoted by Gulens M. BMJ 308:360, 1994.

Isaacson C: Idiopathic neurotrophic feet in blacks. S Afr Med J 52:845-848, 1977.

Jaiyesimi F: Peripheral gangrene in childhood: further observations on its aetiology and psycho-social sequelae in Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 29:159-164, 1977.

Kimati VP, Lyaruu B: Measles complications as seen at Mwanza regional consultant and teaching hospital in 1973. East Afr Med J 53:332-340, 1976.

Koten JW: Peripheral gangrene in infancy and childhood. BMJ 3:798-799, 1967.

Kuberski T, et al: Wheezing bronchitis in children on a South Pacific Island. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:264-272, 1981.

Li N, et al: Coronary heart disease in Chinese in Beijing and Mauritius. BMJ 304:1596-1601, 1992.

Mann GV, et al: Atherosclerosis in the Masai. Am J Epidemiol 95:26-36, 1972.

Mekky S, et al: Varicose veins in women cotton workers: an epidemiological study in England and Egypt. BMJ 2:591-595, 1969.

Miller GJ, et al: The lipoid pneumonia of black-fat tobacco smokers in Guyana. Q J Med 160: 457-470, 1971.

Ogunlesi TO, Rankin TB: Sarcoidosis in West Africa. Trop Med Hyg 318-320, 1961.

Palmer PES, Daynes G: Transkei silicosis. S Afr Med J 41:1182-1188, 1967.

Palmer PES, Rothman WT: The incidence and pattern of chest disease in an African hospital. Clin Radiol 15:178-186, 1963.

Pneumonia in atypical measles (editorial). BMJ 2:235, 1971.

Quinn JL: Measles pneumonia in an adult. Am J Roentgenol 91:560, 1964.

Rosenzweig DY, Stead WW: The role of tuberculosis and other forms of bronchopulmonary necrosis in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. Am Rev Respir Dis 93:769-785, 1966.

Salter JG: Symmetrical gangrene in the African. BMJ 11:108-111,1942.

Schildkamp HT: Idiopathic gangrene in a Botswana male. Trop Geogr Med 28:249-250, 1976.

Selfel HC, et al: Myocardial infarction in the Johannesburg Bantu. S Afr Med J 44:8-12, 1970.

Shaheen SO, et al: Cell mediated immunity after measles in Guinea-Bissau: historical cohort study. BMJ 313:969-974, 1996.

Sharper AG, Jones KW: Serum cholesterol, diet and coronary heart disease in Africans and Asians in Uganda. Lancet 2:534-537, 1959.

Sofowora EO: Bronchial asthma in the tropics: a study of 250 Nigerian patients. East Afr Med J 47:434-439, 1970.

Spencer SS, Makene WJ: Rheumatic heart disease in Tanzania. East Afr Med J 49:909-920, 1972.

Sripad S, Basu AK: Vascular disease in the tropics. In: Birnstingl M (ed) Peripheral vascular surgery. Heinemann, London, 1973, p 419.

Stein M, Gelfand M: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundice associated with lobar pneumonia. Cent Afr Med J 27:235-236, 1981.

Steiner AO, Mult MS: Vascular changes in the idiopathic peripheral gangrene of the tropics. Trop Geogr Med 24:219-225, 1972.

Tsomondo E, Jones J: Comparison of cardiac ftmction assessed from systolic time intervals in Europeans and Africans in Rhodesia. Cent Afr J Med 20:137-140, 1974.

Van Berkel M, et al: Acute respiratory insufficiency from psittacosis. BMJ 290:1503-1504, 1988.

WHO: Control of acute respiratory infections. Interim (draft) programme report. Technical Advisory Group, WHO, Geneva, 1992.

Wicks ACB: Onyalai: a disappearing disease entity. Cent Afr J Med 18:93-96, 1972.

Williams JG: Silicosis in grind stone cutters in Nigeria. In: The Report from the British Institute of Radiology, 1976.

Zimmerman RR, Kung'u A: Idiopathic gangrene. East Afr Med J 54:1-5, 1977.

Skeletal System

Adeloye A: Growing skull fractures of childhood in Nigeria. West Afr Med J 20:274-276, 1971.

Arotiba GT: The aetiology of facial fractures in Lagos. Nig Postgrad Med J 3:37-42, 1996.

Bagg LR, et al: Chronic polyarthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J 53:567-572, 1976.

Barry HC: Fractures of the femur in Paget's disease of bone in Australia. J Bone Joint Surg 49:1359-1370, 1967.

Barry HC: Paget's disease of bone in an aboriginal. Med J Aust 2:955-956, 1968.

Bateson EM: Non-rachitic bowleg and knock-kneed deformities in young Jamaican children. Br J Radiol 32:92-101, 1966.

Bateson EM: The relationship between Blount's disease and bowlegs. Br J Radiol 41:107-114, 1968.

Belli L, et al: Valori dell'esame ecografico nello studio dell'osteo mielite. Radiol Med (Torino) 79:571-574, 1990.

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Chakraharty RP, Bhardwaj OP: Paget's disease of bone. J Indian Med Assoc 41:126-127, 1963.

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Cockshott WP: The geography of coracoclavicular joints. Skelet Radiol 21:225-227, 1992.

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Greenwood BM, Herrick EM: Low incidence of rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1:71-73, 1970.

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Khalil AF, Shaladi OA: Fractures of the facial bones in the eastern region of Libya. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 19:300-304, 1981.

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Laidler B, et al: A nail in the head. Cent Afr J Med 24 (9 Suppl):16-21, 1978.

Loro A, Franceschi F, Dal Lago A: Case report: macrodystrophia lipomatosa. Ethiop Med J 33:187-192, 1995.

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Taylor JF, Carswell W: Infection of bone. Trop Doct 7:38-42, 1977.

Central Nervous System

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Adeloye A, Bohrer SP: Intracranial tram-line calcification in purulent meningitis. West Afr Med J 20:195-196, 1971.

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Dean J: Multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:1064-1069, 1994.

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Foster RM, Harris JR: Multiple sclerosis in the African. BMJ 3:628, 1970.

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Olufemi WA, et al: A comparative study of cerebral atherosclerosis between an African (Nigerian) and American population groups (Caucasians and Negroes). East Afr Med J 48:152-162, 1971.

Osuntokun BO: The pattern of neurological illness in tropical Africa. J Neurol Sci 12:417-421, 1971.

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Stewart J, Bagg LR: Tabes dorsalis: two case reports. East Afr Med J 53:587-589, 1976.

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Voorhoeve HMA: Childhood convulsions in the tropics. Trop Doct 12:122-124, 1982.

Neck: Goiters and Swellings

Ahuja AT, et al: Ultrasound of Kimura's disease. Clin Radio 50:170-173, 1995.

Brodie TA: Location, location. Am Surg 63:567-572, 1997.

Davey WW. Thyroid. In: Davey WW (ed) Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1968, pp 135-147.

Fulcher AS: Cervical lymphadenopathy due to Kikuchi disease. US & CT appearance. J Comput Assist Tomog 17:131-133, 1993.

Graves GF, Mills AW. Thyroid disease in patients at Mpilo Hospital (Bulawayo, Zimbabwe). A 9-year survey. Cent Afr J Med 26:252-258, 1980.

Joseph EA, Hille JJ: Kimura's disease: a benign condition that may be confused with malignancy. S Afr J Surg 28:100-102, 1990.

Komolafe F: Radiological patterns and significance of thyroid calcification. Clin Radiol 32:571-575, 1981.

Komolafe F: Cervical spine changes in goitre. Clin Radiol 33:25-29, 1982.

Komolafe F: Air oesophagograms. Diagn Imaging Clin Med 53:128-130, 1984.

Mengistu M: Solitary thyroid nodules in adult Ethiopian patients. Trop Geogr Med 45:126-128, 1993.

Onuora VA: Non-thyroid neck masses in tropical Africans. Trop Geogr Med 39:256-259, 1987.

Smith JRG, et al: CT of Kimura's disease. Am J Neurol Radiol 10:534-536, 1989.

Som PM, Biller HF: Kimura's disease involving parotid gland and cervical nodes: CT and MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 16:320-322, 1992.

Templeton AC, Schmanz R: Cervical lymphadenopathy in Ugandans. East Afr Med 14:582-587, 1970.


Ing R, Ho JMC, Petrakis NL: Unilateral breast feeding and breast cancer. Lancet II:124-129, 1979.

Tinckler LF, Stock FE: Paraffinoma of the breast. J R Coll Surg Edinb 28:260-263, 1983.

Van Gelderen WFC, Goosen A: Mammographic features of unilateral breast feeding. Clin Radiol 51:134-135, 1996.

Yang WT, Suen M, Ho WS: Paraffinomas of the breast: mammographic, ultrasound, radiographic appearances. Clin Radiol 51:130-133, 1996.

Soft Tissues

Byrne L: Brazil's mercury disaster. BMJ 304:1397, 1992.

Horn CV, Master S: Pyomyositis tropicans in Uganda. East Afr Med J 45:463-471, 1968.

Jiao L, Myers J: The teeth of the Burmese python. Case report. BMJ 314:1290, 1997.

Kingsley HJ: A case of a large keloid of the neck in an African patient. Cent Afr J Med 22:190-191, 1976.

Loro A, Franceschi F: Human bites and finger infections: a survey at the Dodoma Regional Hospital, Tanzania. Trop Doct 22:24-26, 1992.

Maathius JB, Koten JW: Kikuyu bursa and tumoral calcinosis. Trop Geogr Med 21:389-396, 1969.

Sinha MP: White magic. Quoted by Minerva. BMJ 306:596, 1993.

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