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Chapter 43

Geographic Variations of Malignant Neoplastic Diseases in the Tropics


The literature describing the geographic distribution of malignant diseases is very comprehensive from a very wide variety of journals and texts. No bibiography can be complete, but these references will provide not only information but further sources. For some regions older references have been retained because there is incomplete or unreliable up-to-date information. The majority of these references do not refer to imaging, but to the incidence and characteristics of malignant disease in many parts of the world.

Abinya NAO, Nyabola LO: Some clinico-pathologic and prognostic data in malignant lymphoma seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a 13 year period. East Afr Med J 66:757-763, 1989.

Adedeji MO: The malignant lymphomas in Benin City, Nigeria. East Afr Med J 66:134-140, 1989.

Ahmed MAM, et al: A five year retrospective study of childhood leukemia in the Sudan. East Afr Med J 55:21-26, 1977.

Ahuja AT, et al: Submental metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Radiol 54:25-28, 1999.

Akinosi JO, Williams AO: Ameloblastomas in Ibadan, Nigeria. Oral Surg 27:257-265, 1969.

Al-Idrissi H: The pattern of breast cancer in Saudi females in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Indian J Med Sci 44:11-15, 1990.

Anjarwalla KA: Carcinoma of the bladder in the coast province of Kenya. East Afr Med J 48:502-509, 1971.

Bah E, Hall AJ, Inskip HM: The first two years of the Gambian National Cancer Registry. Br J Cancer 62:647-650, 1990.

Bailey LC: The pattern and presentation of intracranial tumours in Uganda. East Afr Med J 48:565-575, 1971.

Bailey LC, Thomas JD: Pituitary tumours in Uganda. East Afr Med J 48:90-99, 1971.

Balint GA: Gastric and colorectal cancer in the tropical part of Africa (a review). Acta Med Hung 47:91-98, 1990.

Batten GH: Incidence of cancer in USA, Hawaii. In: Doll R et al (eds): Cancer incidence in five continents. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1966, pp 204-210.

Bayo S, et al: Cancer in Mali, 1987-1988. Int J Cancer 45:674-684, 1990.

Beasley RP, et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis-B virus. A prospective study of 22,707 men in Taiwan. Lancet 11:1129-1133, 1981.

Bhandwandeen SB: Carcinoma of the male breast in Zambia. East Afr Med J 49:89-93, 1972.

Bhana D, Kyalwazi SK: A review of carcinoma of the penis at Mulago Hospital, Kampala (Uganda). East Afr Med J 49:996-1001, 1972.

Boulos PB, El Masri SH: Carcinoma of the oesophagus in the Sudan. Trop Geogr Med 29:150-154,1977.

Bremmer CJ, Ackermann LV: Polyps and carcinoma of the bowel in South African Bantu. Cancer 26:991-999, 1970.

Burkitt DP: A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Br J Surg 46:218-221, 1958.

Burkitt DP: Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 28:3-13, 1971.

Burrell RJW: Oesophageal cancer among Bantu in the Transkei. J Natl Cancer Inst 28:495-514, 1962.

Callea F, et al: Precancerous lesions of the biliary tree. J Surg Oncol Suppl 3:131-133, 1993.

Chang M-W, et al: Universal hepatitis-B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma in children. N Engl J Med 336:1855-1859, 1997.

Chang VFH, et al: Maxillary sinus involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Singapore). Proc 18th Int Congr. Radiol, S 447, p 171, 1995.

Chopra SA, Templeton AC: Cancer in East African Indians. Int J Cancer 8:176-182, 1971.

Cook PJ, Burkitt DP: Cancer in Africa. Br Med Bull 27:14-20, 1971.

Correa P Llanos G: Morbidity and mortality from cancer in Cali, Colombia. J Natl Cancer Inst 36:717-721, 1966.

Cuello C, Correa O, Eisenberg H: Geographic pathology of thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 23:230-239, 1969.

Daniel E: Burkitt's lymphoma in Ethiopian children. Trop Geogr Med 42:255-260, 1990.

Davies JNP, et al: Incidence rates of cancer in Kyandono County, Uganda, 1954-1960. J Natl Cancer Inst 35:789-821, 1965.

DeCarvalho ARL: Pattern of cancer in tropical areas of northeastern Brazil. Int Rev Exp Pathol 8:850-861, 1967.

Desai Y, Seebaran AR, Mars M: Gastric carcinoma in Durban's Indian population. S Afr Med J 79:68-70, 1991.

Dillner J, et al: Prospective seroepidemiological evidence that human papilloma virus, type 16 infection, is a risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma BMJ 311:1346, 1995.

Dodge OG: Tumors of the bladder in Uganda Africans. Acta Unit Int Cancer 18:548-552, 1962.

Doll R, et al (eds): Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Springer, Berlin, 1966.

Duncan JTK: Cancer problems in Lagos (Nigeria). West Afr Med J 121:37-42, 1972.

Edamoto Y, et al: Hepatitis C and B virus infections in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 77:1787-1791, 1996.

Edington GM: Malignant disease in the Gold Coast Br J Cancer 10:595-608,1956.

Edington GM, MacLean CM: A cancer rate survey in Ibadan, Western Nigeria, 1960-1963. Br J Cancer 19:471-481, 1965.

Eguchi A, et al: Adenomatous hyperplasia in the vicinity of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Hepatology 15:843-848, 1992.

Egwuatu VE, Ozumba BC: Observations on molar pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 29:219-225, 1989.

Elebute EA: Cancer in the tropics. In: Schwartz S, et al (eds): Tropical Surgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970, pp 233-241

Elem B, Patel S: Pattern of urological malignancy in Zambia. A hospital-based histopathological study. Br J Urol 67:37-39, 1991.

Essien EM: Leukemia in Nigerians. East Afr Med J 53:96-103, 1976

Fernandes CMC, Solomon A: Pyriform fossa carcinoma in South African Negro patients. S Afr Med J 52:528-531, 1977.

Fleming AF: Twenty-five Zambians with leukemias. East Afr Med J 66:162-166, 1989.

Glaser SL: Hodgkin's disease in black populations: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Semin Oncol 17:643-659, 1990.

Grech P: Radiology of lesions in the upper intestinal tract over four years in Dar es Salaam. East Afr Med J 42:108-112, 1965.

Grulich AE, et al: Cancer mortality in African and Caribbean migrants to England and Wales. Br J Cancer 6:905-911, 1992.

Gupta PC, et al: Mortality experience in relation to tobacco chewing and smoking habits from a 10 year follow up study in Ernakulam District, Kerala. Int J Epidemiol 13:184-187, 1984.

Harris M: Carcinoma of the female breast in Jamaica. Proc Geogr Med 29:213-222, 1977.

Higginson J, Oettle AG: Cancer incidence in the Bantu and Cape coloured races of South Africa, 1953-55. J Natl Cancer Inst 24:589-595, 1960.

Hiza PR: Malignant disease in Tanzania. East Afr Med J 53:82-95, 1976.

Hutt M: Malignant disease in childhood in the tropics. Trop Doct 20:1-2, 1990.

Isaacson C, et al: The iron status of urban black subjects with carcinoma of the oesophagus. S Afr Med J 67:591-593, 1985.

Johnson R: Cases of cancer seen at a Botswana hospital, 1968-72. Cent Afr J Med 21:260-265, 1975.

Junaid TA, et al: Choriocarcinoma in Ibadan, Nigeria. Epidemiological aspects. J Natl Cancer Inst 53:1597-1599, 1974.

Jussawalla DJ, et al: Differences observed in the site incidence of cancer between the Parsi community and the total population of greater Bombay. A critical appraisal. Br J Cancer 24:56-66, 1970.

Jussawalla DJ, et al: Cancer in the tropics. A comparative study with special reference to India. Indian J Cancer 6:1-26, 1969.

Kariyabwire WM, et al: Malignant melanoma in Uganda. East Afr Med J 45:498-507, 1968.

Kasili EG, Taylor JR. Leukaemia in Kenya. East Afr Med J 47:461-468, 1970.

Kasule J: The pattern of gynaecological malignancy in Zimbabwe. East Afr Med J 66:393-399, 1989.

Kaushai R, et al: Carcinoma of the esophagus presenting with esophagocutaneous fistula - case report. Indian J Med Sci 45:13-14, 1991.

Kew MC, et al: Hepatitis C virus antibodies in southern African blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 335:873-874, 1990.

Kitinya JN, Lauren PA: Burkitt's lymphoma in Mt. Kilimanjaro and the inland regions of northern Tanzania. East Afr Med J 59:256-260, 1982.

Kovi J, et al: Breast lesions in black women. Pathol Annu 24:199-218, 1989.

Kromberg JG, et al: Albinism and skin cancer in southern Africa. Clin Genet 36:43-52, 1989.

Lamuze B, et al: Host response to hepatitis-B infection in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma and their families. A case control study in Senegal, West Africa. Lancet II:534-538, 1976.

Lehtinen M, et al: Serologically diagnosed infection with human papilloma virus type 16 and risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma: nested case-control study. BMJ 312:537-539, 1996.

Levy JL, et al: The chest radiographs in primary liver carcinomas: an analysis of 449 cases. S Afr Med J 50:1323-1326, 1977.

Loke SL, et al: Human papilloma virus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 43:909-912, 1990.

Lopez AD: Counting the dead in China [editorial]. BMJ 317:1399-1400, 1998.

Lowe RP: The incidence of leukaemia in the Rhodesian African. A five year hospital survey. Cent Afr J Med 20:80-85, 1974.

Lucas SB, Fischer TR: Neuroblastoma in Zaire (letter). Lancet I:115, 1990.

Marsden ATH: The geographical pathology of cancer in Malaya. Br J Cancer 12:161-165, 1958.

Massabi M, Muaka BK, Tamba N: Epidemiology of childhood cancer in Zaire. Lancet 2:501-502, 1989.

McPherson K, Steel CN, Dixon JM: Breast cancer, epidemiology, risk factors and genetics. BMJ 309:1003-1006, 1994.

Miller RW: Rarity of neuroblastoma in East Africa. Lancet 335:659-660, 1990.

Mosadomi A: Odontogenic tumours in an African population: analysis of 29 cases in an over five year period. Oral Surg 40:502-521, 1975.

Mukiigi JM, Kyobe J: Pattern of multiple myeloma in Kenya. Trop Geogr Med 40:20-25, 1988.

Murray JF (ed): Tumours of the Alimentary Tract in Africa. Natl Cancer Inst Monograph, no. 25, 1967.

Norredan K: Primary carcinoma of the liver in Malawi. Trop Geogr Med 29:141-149, 1977.

Oettle AG: Malignant neoplasms of the uterus in white, "coloured", Indian and Bantu races in the Union of South Africa. Acta Un Int Cancer 17:915-933, 1961.

Oettle AG: Cancer in Africa, especially in the region south of the Sahara. J Natl Cancer Inst 33:383-439, 1964.

Owor R: Malignant neoplasms in African infants. East Afr Med J 54:9-13, 1977.

iOwor R: Malignant lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in Uganda. A report of 40 cases. East Afr Med J 54:666-669, 1977.

Palmer PES: The haemangiosarcoma of Kaposi. Acta Radiol Suppl(Stockh) 316:1-52,1972.

Palmer FES, McGlashan NB: Geographical pathology for radiologists. Australas Radiol 17:367-370, 1973.

Pawandima G, Wicks ACB: Pancreatic carcinoma in Rhodesian Africans. Cent Afr J Med 2:195-198, 1976.

Peloux Y, et al: Contribution to the study of cancer in tropical regions. Apropos of ten years activity in the laboratoire d'Histologie de l'Ecole d'Application et centre action et de recherche service d'sante des troupes de marine. Med Trop (Mars) 26:477-482, 1966.

Prates MD, Torres FO: A cancer survey in Lourenco Marques, Portuguese East Africa. J Natl Cancer Inst 55:729-757, 1965.

Quenum C: Cancers of the bladder and bilharzia endemic in Senegal. Indian Pract 20:171-178, 1967

Ruberti RF, Poppi M: Tumors of the central nervous system. East Afr Med J 48:576-584, 1971.

Seidman H, et al: Cancer statistics 1976. CA Cancer J Clin 26:2-29, 1976.

Shanmugaratnam K: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Asia. In: Shivas AA (ed): Racial and Geographical Factors in Tumor Incidence. Medical Monographs # 2. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1967.

Simson IW: Cirrhosis and other liver diseases. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds): Tropical Pathology. Springer, Berlin, 1995, pp 1147-1160.

Slavin G, Cameron HM: Ameloblastomas in Africans from Tanzania and Uganda A report of 56 cases. Br J Cancer 23:31-38, 1969.

Skinner MEG, et al: Cancer in the African population of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. 1963-1977. IARC technical report #15, IARC, Lyon, 1993.

Smith EC, Elwes BGT: Malignant disease in natives of Nigeria. An analysis of 500 tumours. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 28:461-476, 1934.

Templeton AC: Tumors in a Tropical Country. Recent Results in Cancer Research, vol 41. Springer, Berlin, 1972.

Tsega E: Hepatocellular carcinoma in Ethiopia: a prospective clinical study of 100 patients. East Afr Med J 54:281-291, 1977.

Van Rensburg LJ, Nortje CJ: Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of malignant disease of the jaws. Oral Maxillo Surg Clin North Am 4:75-111, 1992.

Walker ARP, et al: Characteristics of black women with breast cancer in Soweto, South Africa. Cancer J 2:316-319, 1989.

Walker ARP, Isaacson C, Patterson AC: Cancer in the tropics. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds): Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn, Springer, Berlin, 1995, pp 1201-1246.

Williams AO, Edington GM: Malignant disease of the colon, rectum and anal canal in Nigeria. Dis Colon Rectum 10:301-308, 1967.

Wong WL: The radiological appearances of hepatic tumours in Hong Kong. Australas Radiol 17:397-405, 1973.

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