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Chapter 4

Chagas' Disease


Abath GM, et al: Histopathology of skeletal muscle in Chagas' disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:141-145, 1966.

Acquatella H, Schiller NB: Echocardiographic recognition of Chagas' disease and endomyocardial fibrosis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1:60-68, 1988.

Acquatella H, Schiller NB, Puigbo JJ, et al: M mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in chronic Chagas' heart disease. A clinical and pathological study. Circulation 62:787-789, 1980.

Allain DS, et al: An evaluation of the direct agglutination test for Chagas' disease. J Parasitol 60:179-184, 1974.

Anselmi A, et al: Myocardiopathy in Chagas' disease. I Comparative study of pathologic findings in chronic human and experimental Chagas' myocarditis. Am Heart J 72:469, 1966.

Anselmi A, et al: Cardiovascular radiology in acute and chronic Chagas' myocardiopathy. Morphologic and dynamic study of the cardiac contour correlated with the histologic changes observed in myocardiopathies attributed to Schizotrypanum cruzi. Am Heart J 73:626, 1967.

Arreaza N, Puigbo JJ, Acquatella H, et al: Radionuclide evaluation of left ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Med 24:563-567, 1993.

Atias A, et al: Megaesophagus, megacolon, and Chagas' disease in Chile. Gastroenterology 44:433-437, 1963.

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Brasil A: Anatomical sino-atrial block: a new disturbance of the heart mechanism. Arq Bras Cardiol 8:159-221, 1955.

Breniere SF, Carrasco R, Revollo S, et al: Chagas' disease in Bolivia: clinical and epidemiological features and zymodeme variability of Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:521-529, 1989.

Byington CAB: Vectocardiografia em Doenca de Chagas. Anaes do Congresso Internacional sobre a Doenca de Chagas. Vol 1. Oficina Grafica da Universidade do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1959, pp 357-374.

Carrasco HA, Barbozo JS, Inglessis G, et al: Left ventricular cineangiography in Chagas' disease: detection of early myocardial damage. Am Heart J 104:595-602, 1982.

Carvalhal S, et al: Alteracoes do complexo QRS nos derivacoes precordiais e seu substrato anatomico en pacientes portadores de miocardite chagasica cronica. Rev Paul Med 45:161, 1954.

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Combellas I, Puigbo JJ, Acquatello H, et al: Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas' heart disease. Br Heart J 53:298-309, 1985.

Cunha CLP, Urbanitz LAGT, Souza AM, et al: Evolutive Doppler echocardiographic changes in the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease. Eur Heart J 14:135, 1993.

De Freitas JLP: Public health importance of Chagas' disease. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, WHO/Chagas' 4:1, 1960.

Ferreira MS, et al: Acute, fatal Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a human immuno-deficiency-virus positive hemophiliac patient. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45:723-727, 1991.

Ferreira-Santos R, Carril CF: Acquired megacolon in Chagas' disease. Dis Colon Rectum 7:353-364, 1964.

Ferreira-Santos R: Aperistalsis of the esophagus and colon (megaesophagus and megacolon) etiologically related to Chagas' disease. Am J Dig Dis 6:700-726, 1961.

Gluckstein D, et al: Chagas' disease. Another cause of a cerebral mass in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 92:429-432, 1992.

Guerrero L, Carrasco H, Parada H, et al: Left ventricular mechanics in Chagas' disease and dilated cardiomyopathy: echocardiographic study [in Spanish]. Arq Brasil Cardiol 53:23-27, 1989.

Hagar JM, Rahimtoda SH: Chagas' heart disease in the United States. N Engl J Med 325:763-768, 1991.

Johnson CM: American trypanosomiasis. Med Clin North Am 27:822, 1943.

Jung RC: Chagas' disease, a possible cause of megaesophagus and megacolon. Am J Gastroenterol 32:311-316, 1959.

Kirchhoff LV, et al: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in Central American immigrants. Am J Med 82:915-920, 1987.

Kirchhoff IV: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) -a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med 329:639-643, 1993.

Köberle F: Megaesophagus. Gastroenterology 34:460-466, 1958.

Köberle F: Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas' disease. Gut 4:399-405, 1963.

Köberle F, et al: Patologia da molestia de Chagas. Med Rev Fac Med Ribeirao Preto 5:5-45, 1972.

Lack EE, Filie A: American trypanosomiasis. In: Connor DH, Chandler FW (eds): Pathology of Infectious Diseases, vol 2. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1299-1304.

Laranja FS, et al: Chagas' disease: a clinical, epidemiologic, and pathological study. Circulation 14:1035, 1956.

Latin America's plague. The Economist May 5, 1990, p 105.

Levin MJ, Mesri E, Benarous R, et al: Identification of major Trypanosoma cruzi antigenic determinants in chronic Chagas' heart disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:530-538, 1989.

Lorenzana R: Chronic Chagas myocarditis: report of a case. Am J Clin Pathol 48:39-43, 1967.

Losavio A, Jones MC, Sanz OP, et al: A sequential study of the peripheral nervous system involvement in experimental Chagas' disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:539-547, 1989.

Marin-Neto JA, Marzullo P, Souza ACS, et al: Radionuclide angiographic evidence for early predominant right ventricular involvement in patients with Chagas' disease. Can J Cardiol 4:231-236, 1988.

Marin-Neto JA, Marzullo P, Marcassa C, et al: Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in chronic Chagas' disease as detected by thallium-201 scintigraphy. Am J Cardiol 69:780-784, 1992.

Marquez JS, et al: The electrocardiogram in Chagasic myocarditis. Am Heart J 59:321-322, 1960.

Marsden PD: American trypanosomiasis. In: Cook GC (ed): Manson's Tropical Diseases, 20th edn. Saunders, London, 1996, pp 1197-1212.

Massumi RA, Gooch A: Chagas' myocarditis. Arch Intern Med 116:531-536, 1965.

Mattoso LF, Reeder MM: Radiological diagnosis of Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis). Semin Roentgenol 33:26-46, 1998.

Mota E, Todd CW, Maguire JH, et al: Megaesophagus and seroreactivity to Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural community in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:820-826, 1984.

Mott KE, Hagstrom JWC: The pathologic lesions of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in chronic Chagas' myocarditis. Circulation 31:273-286, 1965.

Neal RA: Epidemiology of Chagas' disease and methods of detecting T cruzi. Proc R Soc Med 66:773-774, 1973.

Ortiz J, Matsumoto AY, Monaco CAF: Echocardiography in Chagas'disease. Echocardiography 3:41, 1986.

Puigbo JJ, et al: Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvement in Chagas' disease. Bull World Health Organ 34:655-669, 1969.

Raia A, et al: Pathogenesis and treatment of acquired megaduodenum. Am J Dig Dis 6:757-771, 1961.

Reeder MM, Hamilton LC: Tropical diseases of the colon. Semin Roentgenol 3:62-80, 1968.

Reeder MM, Hamilton LC: Radiologic diagnosis of tropical diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Radiol Clin North Am 7:57-81, 1969.

Reeder MM, Simao C: Chagas' myocardiopathy. Semin Roentgenol 4:374-383, 1969.

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Rezende JM, Moreira H: Chagasic megaesophagus and megacolon. Historical review and present concepts. Arq Gastroenterol 25 (special issue):32-43, 1988.

Rosemberg S, et al: Fatal meningoencephalitis caused by reactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a patient with AIDS. Neurology 42:640-642, 1992.

Rosenbaum MB: Chagasic myocardiopathy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 7:199-225, 1964.

Schiffler RJ, et al: Indigenous Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) in California. JAMA 251:2983-2984, 1984.

Soubhie NV, Vichi RL: Acao de digitalicos na cardiopatia Chagasica cronica. Rev Paul Med 70:210, 1967.

Szarfman A, et al: A simple method for the detection of human congenital Chagas' disease. J Parasitol 59:723, 1973.

Tarleton R, Downs M, Zhang L: Chagas' disease: associated heart damage not due to autoimmune reactions. Vaccine Weekly Sept 22, 1997, pp 7-8.

Troncon LE, lazigi N: Scintigraphic study of the gastrointestinal transit of a liquid meal in patients with chronic Chagas' disease. Braz J Med Biol Res 25:145-148, 1992.

Vichi FL, et al: Apical abnormalities in Chagas' cardiopathy. A radiological-electrocardiographic correlation. Arq Bras Cardiol 21:251-256, 1968.

Winslow DJ, Chaffee EF: Preliminary investigations on Chagas' disease. Milit Med 130:826, 1965.

Woody NC, Woody HB: American trypanosomiasis. First endogenous case in the United States. JAMA 159:676, 1955.

Woody NC, Woody HB: American trypanosomiasis I. Clinical and epidemiological background of Chagas' disease in the United States. J Pediatr 58:568, 1961.

World Health Organization: Chagas' disease: report of a study group. WHO Tech Rep Ser 202:1, 1960.

World Health Organization: Control of Chagas'disease: report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Tech Rep Ser 811:1-91, 1991.

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