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Chapter 25

Cardiac Disease in the Tropics


Abraham DG, Cockshott WP. Multiple non-luetic aneurysms in young Nigerians. Br Heart J 13:83-91, 1962

Abraham DG, et al: Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm. Q J Med 31: 345-360, 1962

Altemus Reed L: Malnutrition with microdoria. AJR 99:674-680, 1967

Andrade ZA, Andrade SG: Pathogenesis of schistosomal arteritis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:305-310, 1970

Andy JJ, Bishara FF, Soyinka OO: Relationship of severe eosinophilia and microfilaria to chronic African EMF. Br Heart J 45:672-680, 1981

Antia AU, Jaiyesimi F: Heart disease in African children and adolescents. In: Godman M (ed) Paediatric Cardiology, vol 4. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1982, pp 656-666

Arend WP, et al: The American College of Rheumatology 1990 - Criteria for the classification of Takayasu arteritis. J Arthritis Rheum 8:1129-1134, 1990

Balasundaram R: Cardiovascular disease in a West Malaysian town. A survery of general practice. Trans R Soc Med Hyg 644:607-614, 1970

Ball J, Grayzel AI: Arteritis and localized periosteal new bone formation. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 46:244-250, 1964

Beaglehole R: Cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Editorial. BMJ 305:1170-1171, 1992

Beck W, Schrire V: Endomyocardial fibrosis in Caucasians previously resident in tropical Africa. Br Heart J 34:915-918, 1972

Becker, PJP: Cardiovascular disease in the Bantu and other coloured races of South Africa. S Afr J Med Sci 11:97-105, 1946

Ben Naceur M, et al: Les arteriopathies tronculaire non atherosclereuses. Arch Mal Coeur 5:607-622, 1972

Bertrand E, Bron AN, Odi-Assamoi M: Hypertension and other cardiac risk factors on the Ivory Coast. Cardiologie Tropicale 12:127-134, 1986

Blankson J, et al: Blood pressure levels of African children. J Chr Dis 30:735-743, 1977

Bouramone C, Asscunga AGH: Takayasu's arteritis. Cardiologie Tropicale 12:45-51, 1986

Bowles NE, et al: End stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 80:1128-1136, 1989

Brockington IF, Olsen EGJ, Goodwin JF: Endomyocardial fibrosis in Europeans resident in tropical Africa. Lancet I:583-588, 1967

Caddell JL, Connor DH: Congenital heart disease in Ugandan children. Br Heart J 28:766-767, 1966

Cardiologie Tropicale. Editorial. Dogma and reality: cardiovascular disease in underdeveloped countries. Cardiologie Tropicale 15:95, 1989

Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 9. N Engl J Med 326:624-633, 1992

Chaturvedi N, et al: Relationship of glucose tolerance to coronary risk in Afro-Caribbeans compared with Europeans. Diabetologia 37:765-772, 1994

Chaturvedi N, et al: Resting and ambulatory blood pressure differences in Afro-Caribbeans compared with Europeans. Hypertension 22:90-96, 1993

Chou M-W, et al: Tuberculous aortitis complicated with rupture of the aorta: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc 86:687-689, 1987

Chugh KS, Sakhujav H: Aortoarteritis, a common cause of renovascular hypertension in Asia. Int Artif Org 11:319-321, 1985

CIOMS/WHO. International nomenclature of disease, vol. V. Cardiac and Vascular Diseases. WHO, Geneva, 1989

Cockshott WP: Angiocardiography in endomyocardial fibrosis. Br J Radiol 38:192-100, 1965

Cockshott WP, Saric S, Ikeme AC: Radiological findings in endomyocardial fibrosis. Circulation 35: 913-922, 1967

Cockshott WP, Thorpe GJ, Ikeme AC: Radiological aspects of heart muscle disease in Nigerian adults. Circulation 36:460-467, 1967

Cockshott WP, et al: Annular subventricular aneurysms. Br J Radiol 40:424-435, 1967

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Connor DH, et al: Endomyocardial fibrosis in Uganda (Davies' disease), an epidemiologic, clinical and pathologic study. Part I. Am Heart J 74: 687-709, 1967

Connor DH, et al: Endomyocardial fibrosis in Uganda (Davies' disease), an epidemiologic, clinical and pathologic study. Part II. Am Heart J 75, 107-124, 1968

Datta BN: Cardiovascular disease in the tropics. In: Silver MD (ed) Cardiovascular Pathology, vol 2. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1991, pp 1231-1277

Datta BN: Parasitic diseases of the heart. In: Silver MD (ed) Cardiovascular Pathology, vol 2. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1991, pp 1279-1296

Davidson NMcD, Perry EHO: Peripartum cardiac failure. In: Cardiovascular Diseases in the Tropics. BMA, London, pp 199 -204, 1974

Diamond J: Sweet death - genes that used to help us survive starvation may be causing current diabetes epidemic. Natural History 9:2-6, 1992

Dods SRA, Bothing S: Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in developing countries. World Health Forum 10:203-212, 1989

East African Medical Journal. Editorial. Myocarditis and myocardiopathy. East Afr Med J 45: 584-585, 1968

Ephrem D, et al: Profile of heart disease in Ethiopian children. East Afr Med J 67:113-117, 1990

Falase AO: Are eosinophils the cause of endomyocardial fibrosis in the tropics? Afr J Med Sci 14:1-2, 1985

Gajaraj A, et al: Obscure stenosing aortitis and arteritis associated with perivascular lymphadenitis. Clin Radiol 28, 555-559, 1977

Goldbaum TS, et al: Tuberculous aortitis presenting with an aorto-duodenal fistula: a case report. Angiology 37, 519-523, 1986

Golding RL, Perri G, Cremin BJ: The arteriographic manifestations of Takayasu's arteritis in children. Pediatr Radiol 5:224 -230, 1977

Goodwin JF: The frontiers of cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 48:1-18, 1982

Grobbelaar NJ: Peripheral arterial disease in the Bantu. S Afr J Surg 12: 133-135, 1974

Hachiya J: Dissecting aneurysm in Takayasu arteritis: Nippon Acta Radiol 33:578-585, 1973

Hall SW, et al: Hypereosinophilic syndrome with biventricular involvement. Circulation 55:217 -222, 1977

Hamza M: Large artery involvement in Behcet's disease. J Rheumatol 14:554-559, 1987

Hawass N AP-Din, et al: Non specific aortitis of the aorta and its main branches. IJRI 421:225-231, 1988

Hayashi K, et al: Takayasu arteritis: decrease in aortic wall thickening following steroid therapy documented by CT. Br J Radiol 24:83-91, 1986

Hayashi K, et al: Case report: imaging of Takayasu arteritis in the acute stage. Br J Radiol 69:189-191, 1996

Hendricks JP deV, Willis AJP, Evans KT: Acute dyspnoea with trophoblastic tumors. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Comm 72:376 -383, 1965

Hutt MSR: Cardiac pathology in the tropics. In: Pomerance A, Davres MJ (eds) The Pathology of the Heart. Blackwell, London, 1975, pp 511-531

Hwang WS: The rarity of pulmonary embolism in Asians. Singapore Med J 9:276-279, 1968

Ikerionusu SE, et al: Congenital heart disease in Igbos of Nigeria. A necropsy study. Cent Afr M Med 27, 236-238, 1981

Ive FA, et al: Endomyocardial fibrosis and filariasis. Q J Med 36:495-516, 1967

Jaiyesimi F: Controversies and advances in endomyocardial fibrosis. Afr J Med Sci 11:37-46, 1982

Jaiyesimi F: Cardiovascular disease. In: Stanfield P, et al (eds) Diseases of Children in the Subtropics and Tropics, 4th edn. Edward Arnold, London, 1991, pp 762-783

Kassem AS, et al: The pattern of rheumatic fever in Alexandria. Abs Pan-Afric Cong Cardiol Lagos 34, 1981

Keith JD: Prevalence of heart disease. In: Keith JD, Rowe RD, Vlad P (eds) Heart Disease in Infancy and Childhood. Macmillan, New York, 1978

Kitchen ND: The racial distribution of aneurysms in Zimbabwe. J R Soc Med 82:136-137, 1989

Koshe G, Benjamin V, Cherian G: Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in rural South Indian children. Bull World Health Organ 59:599-603, 1981

Lagundoye SB: Subcutaneous fat and muscle layers in chest x-rays of children with kwashiokor. Env Child Health 20:287-290, 1974

Lai KS, MacFadzean AJS, Yeung RJT: Microembolic pulmonary hypertension in pyogenic cholangitis. BMJ 1:22, 1968

Lande A, Berkman YM: Aortitis: pathologic, clinical and arteriographic reviews. Radiol Clin North Am 14:219-240, 1976

Lawson CS, Venn GE, Webb-Peploe MM: Thrombus within a submitral left ventricular aneurysm on cross-sectional echocardiography. Br Heart J 66:175-181, 1991

Lewis BS, et al: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South African Blacks. S Afr Med J 63, 266-269, 1983

Lupi-Herrera L, et al:Takayasu's arteritis. Clinical study of 107 cases. Am Heart J 93:94-103, 1977

Mandalain KR, et al: Aortoarteritis of abdominal aorta: an angiographic profile in 110 patients. Clin Radiol 48:29-34, 1993

Matsunaga N, et al: Takayasu arteritis: protean radiologic manifestations and diagnosis. Radiographics 17:579-594, 1997

Matsuoka S, et al: Evaluation of Takayasu arteritis by using IV-DSA with peripheral injection. Proceedings of 18th Int Cong Rad (ICR 1994), Singapore C 14, 1994

McLaren MJ, et al: Epidemiology of rheumatic heart disease in black school children of Soweto, Johannesberg. BMJ 3:474-478, 1975

McLaren MJ, Lachman AS, Barlow JB: Prevelance of congenital heart disease in black schoolchildren of Soweto, Johannesburg. BMJ 41:554-558, 1979

Mayet J, et al: Racial differences in cardiac structure and function in essential hypertension. BMJ 308:1011-1014, 1994

Metras D, et al: Endomyocardial fibrosis. Early and late results of surgery in 20 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83:52-64, 1982

Miller GJ, et al: The lipoid pneumonia of blackfat smokers in Guyana. Q J Med 40:457-470, 1971

Muir CS: Incidence of congenital heart disease in Singapore. Br Heart J 22:243, 1960

Neumann ME: Tuberculous lesions of the circulatory system. Am J Pathol 28:919-929, 1952

Nissensen A, et al: Hypertension in developing countries. World Health Stat Q 41:414-454, 1988

Oakley C: Aetiology, diagnosis, investigation, and management of cardiomyopathies. A clinical review. Br Med J 315:1520-1524, 1997

Obeyesecke I: Cardiovascular Diseases in the Tropics. BMA, London, 1973, pp 306-313

Odugbeni TO, et al: Symmetrical gangrene of the extremities caused by Neisseria meningitidis type C. East Afr Med J 53:143-148, 1976

Ogawa Y, et al: Pulmonary arterial lesions in Takayasu arteritis: relationship of inflammatory activity to scintigraphic findings and sequential changes. Ann Nucl Med 10:210-223, 1996

O'Leary M, Nollet DJ, Blomberg DJ: Rupture of a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery into the trachea and esophagus: report of a case and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 8:458-467, 1977

Olufemi WA, et al: A comparative study of cerebral atherosclerosis between an African (Nigerian) and American population groups (Caucasians and Negroes). East Afr Med J 48:152-162, 1971

Omokhodion SI, Ogunkule OO: Left ventricular aneurysm in a 10 year old boy. Trop Cardiol 17:157-160, 1991

Pantanowitz D, et al: Arteritis II. Takayasu disease. A round table discussion. Cardiovasc J S Afr 4:74-82, 1993

Park JH, et al: Takayasu arteritis: evaluation of mural changes in the aorta and pulmonary artery with CT angiography. Radiology 196, 89-93, 1995

Park JH, et al: Takayasu's arteritis: angiographic findings and results of angioplasty. AJR 153:1069-1074, 1989

Penn I: Abdominal aortic aneurysm in South African negroes due to intimomedial degeneration. Br J Surg 64:513-516, 1977

Puigbo JJ, et al: Endomyocardial disease in South America. Postgrad Med J 59:162-168, 1983

Rashwan MA, et al: Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt. An illustrated review. Br Heart J 13:284-289, 1995

Robbs JV: Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease in blacks - an established problem. S Afr Med J 67:779-780, 1985

Robbs JV, Costa M: Abdominal aneurysms in a black population: a clinicopathological study. Br J Surg 73:554-558, 1986

Robinson L, et al: Renal artery stenosis in children. Clin Radiol 44:376-382, 1991

Rose AG: Evaluation of pathological criteria for diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Histopathology 8:395-406, 1984

Rose AG: Cardiac tuberculosis. A study of 19 patients. Arch Pathol Lab Med 111:422-426, 1987

Rose AG: Diseases of peripheral arteries. In: Silver MD (ed) Cardiovascular Pathology, vol 1. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1991, pp 342-383

Rose AG: Cardiovascular disease in the tropics. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 1033-1082

Rose AG, Sinclair-Smith CC: Takayasu's arteritis. A study of 16 autopsy cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:231-237, 1980

Ryan MP, et al: Genetic testing for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in newborn infants. BMJ 310:856-859, 1995

Sandhyanni S: Mucoid vasculopathy of unknown etiology. Angiology 42:48-51, 1991

Sandhyanni S: Vasculopathic and cardiomyopathic changes induced by low-protein high-carbohydrate tapioca-based diet in Bonnet monkeys. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol 4:41-50, 1992

Schrire V: The racial incidence of the less common forms of heart disease at Groote Schuur Hospital, Capetown, 1951-61. S Afr Med J 38:598, 1964

Scully RE, McNealy BV: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N Engl J Med 292:579-586, 1975

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Sharma BK, et al: Takayasu arteritis in India. Heart Vessels 7 (Suppl):37-43, 1992

Sharma S, et al: The association between aneurysmal formation and systemic hypertension in Takayasu's arteritis. Clin Radiol 42:182-187, 1990

Sharma S, et al: Non-specific aortoarteritis (Takayasu's disease) in children. Br J Radiol 64:690-698, 1991

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