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Chapter 21

Clonorchiasis and Other Liver Fluke Diseases;

Oriental Cholangiohepatitis


General References

Bunnag D, Bunnag T, Goldsmith R: Liver fluke infections. In: Strickland GT (ed) Hunter's Tropical Medicine, 7th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991, pp 818-827

Cockshott P, Middlemiss H: Clinical Radiology in the Tropics. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1979, pp 137-140

Dooley JR, Neafie RC: Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis. In: Binford CH, Connor DH (eds) Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases, vol 2. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC, 1976, pp 509-516

Haswell-Elkins MR, Elkins DB: Liver flukes. In: Cook GC (ed) Manson's Tropical Diseases, 20th edn. Saunders, London, 1996, pp 1458-1466

Marcial-Rojas RA (ed) Pathology of Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases. Robert Krieger, Huntington, N.Y., 1975, pp 477- 503

Marty AM, Andersen EM: Helminthology. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 823-835

Sun T: Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis. In: Connor DH, Chandler FW (eds) Pathology of Iinfectious Diseases. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1351-1360


Belamaric J: Intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and C. sinensis infection in Hong Kong. Cancer 31:468, 1973

Chang K, Chin HT: Clonorchiasis. Chin Med J 63:68, 1943

Choi BI, Kim HJ, Han MC, et al: CT findings of clonorchiasis. AJR 152:281-284, 1989

Choi BI, Kim TK, Han JK: MRI of clonorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma. J Magn Reson Imaging 8:359, 1998

Fung J: Liver fluke infestation and cholangiohepatitis. Br J Surg 48:404, 1961

Gibson JB, Sun T: Clonorchiasis. In: Marcial-Rojas RA (ed): Pathology of Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases. Robert Krieger, Huntington, NY, 1975, pp 546-566

Harrison-Levy AB: The biliary obstructive syndrome of the Chinese. Br J Surg 49:674-685, 1962

Ho HC: Clonorchiasis. In: Middlemiss H (ed): Tropical Radiology. Medical Book Corp, New York, 1961, pp 140-141

Hou PC: The pathology of Clonorchis sinensis infestation of the liver. J Pathol Bacteriol 70:53-64, 1955

Hou PC: The relationship between primary carcinoma of the liver and infestation with Clonorchis sinensis. J Pathol Bacteriol 72:239, 1956

Hou PC, Pang SC: Clonorchis sinensis infestation in man in Hong Kong. J Pathol Bacteriol 87:245, 1964

Hsu HF, Chow CY: Studies on certain problems of Clonorchis sinensis. II. Investigation in the chief endemic centre of China, the Canton area. Chin Med J 51:341, 1937

Kammerer WS, Van der Decker JA, Keith TB, Mott KE: Clonorchiasis in New York City Chinese. Tropical Doctor 7:105-106, 1977

Komiya Y: Clonorchis and clonorchiasis. In: Dawes B (ed) Advances in Parasitology, vol 4. Academic Press, New York, 1966, p 53

Komiya Y. Suzuki N: The distribution of Clonorchis infection in Japan with remarks on its epidemiology. In: Progress of Medical Parasitology in Japan, vol 1. Meguro Parasitological Museum, Tokyo, 1964, pp 603-660

Lim JH: Radiologic findings of clonorchiasis. AJR 155:1001-1008, 1990

McFadzean AJS, Yeung RTT: Acute pancreatitis due to Clonorchis sinensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 60:466, 1965

Morikawa P, Ishida H, Niizawa M, et al: Sonographic features of biliary clonorchiasis. J Clin Ultrasound 16:655-658, 1988

Okuda K, Shimokawa Y, Nakayama Y: Roentgenologic visualization of liver flukes. Acta Hepato-Splenologica 18:46-50, 1971

Okuda K, Emura T, Morokuma R, et al: Clonorchiasis studies by percutaneous cholangiography and a therapeutic trial of toluene-2g4-diisothiocyanate. Gastroenterology 65:457-461, 1973

Reeder MM: Tropical diseases of the liver and bile ducts. Semin Roentgenol 10:229- 243,1975

Reeder MM, Hamilton LC: Radiologic diagnosis of tropical diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Radiol Clin North Am 7:57-81, 1969

Oriental Cholangiohepatitis (Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis)

Baron RL: CT of the biliary tree. Radiol Clin N Amer 21:1235-1250, 1991

Carmona RH, Crass RA, Lim RC Jr, Trunkey DD: Oriental cholangitis. Am J Surg 148:117- 124, 1984

Chan FL, Man SW, Leong LLY, Fan ST: Evaluation of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis with CT: Analysis of 50 patients. Radiology 170:165-169, 1989

Chau EMT, Leong LLY, Chan FL: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: ultrasound evaluation compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Clin Radiol 38:79-85, 1987

Federle MP, Cello JP, Laing FC, Jeffrey RB Jr: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis in Asian immigrants. Radiology 143:151-156, 1982

Fung J: Liver fluke infestation and cholangiohepatitis. Br J Surg 48:404-415, 1961

Ho CS, Wesson DE: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis in Chinese immigrants. AJR 122:368-374, 1974

Jeffrey RB Jr: Diagnosis of intrahepatic calculi and choledocholithiasis, in: Ferrucci JR, Mathieu DG (eds) Advances in Hepatobiliary Radiology. Mosby, St. Louis, 1990, pp 347- 366

Kerlan RK Jr, Pogany AC, Goldberg HI, Ring EJ: Radiologic intervention in Oriental cholangiohepatitis. AJR 145:809-813, 1985

Khuroo MS, Zargar SA, Yattoo GN, et al: Oddi's sphincter motor activity in patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Hepatology 17:53-58, 1993

Kim M-K, Sekijima J, Lee SP: Primary intrahepatic stones. Am J Gastroenterol 90:540-548, 1995

Kirby CL, Horrow MM, Kotlus-Rosenberg H, Oleaga JA: Ultrasound case of the day. Radiographics 15:1503-1506, 1995

Kusano S, Okada Y, Endo T, et al: Oriental cholangiohepatitis: correlation between portal vein occlusion and hepatic atrophy. AJR 158:1011-1014, 1992

Lim JH: Oriental cholangiohepatitis: Pathologic, clinical, and radiologic features. AJR 157:1-8, 1991

Lim JH, Ko YT, Lee DH, Hong KS: Oriental cholangiohepatitis: sonographic findings in 48 cases. AJR 155:511-514, 1990

Okuno WT, Whitman GJ, Chew FS: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. AJR 167:484, 1996

Song HH, Byun JY, Jung SE, et al: Eosinophilic cholangitis: US, CT, and cholangiography findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:251, 1997

Stewart IET, Metreweli C: Cholescintigraphic images in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and oriental cholangitis. Clin Nucl Med 20:453, 1995

Stock FE: Oriental cholangiohepatitis. Arch Surg 84:409-412, 1962

Teoh TBA: A study of gall stones and included worms in recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. J Pathol Bacteriol 86:123, 1963

Ti TK, Yuen R: Chemical composition of biliary calculi in relation to the pattern of biliary disease in Singapore. Br J Surg 72:556-558, 1985

Van Sonnenberg E, Casola G, Cubberly DA, et al: Oriental cholangiohepatitis: diagnostic imaging with interventional management. AJR 146:327-331, 1986


Bhamarapravati N, Viranuvatti V: Liver diseases in Thailand. An analysis of liver biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol 45:267, 1966

Brown HW: Basic Clinical Parasitology, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969

Chainuvati T, Paosawadhi A, Sripranoth M, et al: Carcinoma of cystic duct associated with opisthorchiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7:482-486, 1976

Evans H, Bourgeois CH, Comer DS, Keschamras N: Biliary tract changes in opisthorchiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:667-671, 1971

Harinasuta C, Vajrasthira S: Opisthorchiasis in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 54:100, 1960

Harinasuta T, Pungpak S, Keystone JS: Trematode infections: opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis, fascioliasis and paragonimiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 7:699-716, 1993

Haswell-Elkins MR, Satarug S, Elkins DB: Opisthorchis viverrini infection in Northeast Thailand and its relationship to cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:538-548, 1992

Mairiang E, Haswell-Elkins MR, Mairiang P, et al: Reversal of biliary tract abnormalities associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection following praziquantel treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87:194-197, 1993

Prijyanonda B, Tandhanand S: Opisthorchiasis with pulmonary involvement. Ann Intern Med 54:795-799, 1961

Sirisinha S, Chawengkirttikul R, Sermswan R, et al: Detection of Opisthorchis viverrini by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA and DNA hybridization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44:140-145, 1991

Tansurat P: Opisthorchiasis. In: Marcial-Rojas RA (ed): Pathology of Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases. Robert Krieger, Huntington, N.Y., 1975, pp 536-545

Viranuvatti V, Stitnimankarn T: Liver fluke infection and infestation in Southeast Asia. Prog Liver Dis 4:537, 1972

Viranuvatti V, et al: Retention cyst of liver caused by opisthorchiasis, associated with carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 23:442, 1955

Viranuvatti V, et al: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with particular reference to liver flukes (opisthorchiasis). Am J Proctol 17:450, 1966

Wilde H: Biliary calculus associated with opisthorchiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:819-820, 1973

Wykoff DE, et al: Opisthorchis viverrini in Thailand. The life cycle and comparison with O. felineus. J Parasitol 51:207, 1965

Wykoff DE, et al: Clinical manifestations of Opisthorchis viverrini infections in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:914, 1966

Fascioliasis, Fasciolopsiasis and Dicrocoeliasis

Apt W, Tisel WR: Cholangiopancreatography endoscopic retrograde: Fascioliasis. Rev Med Chile 115:564-568, 1987

Atalay F, Kirimlioglu V, Dagli U, et al: Human fascioliasis. Surg Today 23:366-369, 1993

Barrett Connor E: Fluke infections. In: Braude AI (ed): Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986, pp 979-982

Binford CH, Connor DH (eds): Pathology of tropical and extraordinary diseases, vol 2. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC, 1976, pp 509, 524-529

Binkley CE, Sinniah B: Fasciolisasis. In: Connor DH, Chandler FW (eds): Pathology of Iinfectious Diseases. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Connecticut, 1997, pp 1419-1425

Condomines J, Rene-Espinet JM, Espinos-Perez JC, et al: Percutaneous cholangiography in the diagnosis of hepatica fascioliasis. Am J Gastroenterol 80:384-386, 1985

DeMiguel F, Carrasco J, Garcia N, et al: CT findings in human fascioliasis. Gastrointest Radiol 9:157-159, 1984

Goebel N, Markwalder K, Siegenthaler W: Fascioliasis hepatis: computed tomography appearance (abstr). Radiology 156:863, 1985

Haswell-Elkins MR, Elkins DB: Liver flukes. In: Cook GC (ed): Manson's Tropical Diseases, 20th edn. Saunders, London, 1996, pp 1461-1466

Hauser SC, Bynum TE,: Abnormalities on ERCP in a case of human Fascioliasis. Gastrointest Endosc 30:80-82, 1984

Hillyer GV, DeWeil NS: Serodiagnosis of experimental Fascioliasis by immunoprecipitation tests. Int J Parasitol 11:71-78, 1981

Kamba M, Suto Y, Hosho K, et al: MRI appearances of fascioliasis complicating liver iron overload. Br J Radiol 70:1296, 1997

Kirk RM: Fascioliasis presenting as a localised hepatic mass. Br Med J 2:1333-1334, 1961

Malek EA: Snail Transmitted Parasitic Diseases, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., 1980, pp 131-179

Moreto M, Barron J: The laparoscopic diagnosis of the liver Fascioliasis. Gastrointest Endosc 26:147-149, 1980

Norton RA, Monroe L: Infection by Fasciola hepatica acquired in California. Gastroenterology 41:46-48, 1961

Ooms HWA, Puylaert JBCM, van der Werf SDJ: Biliary fascioliasis: US and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings. Eur Radiol 5-2:196, 1995

Pagola Serrano MA, Vega A, Ortega E, Gonzalez A: Computed tomography of hepatic fascioliasis. J Comp Asssist Tomogr 11:269-272, 1987

Serrano MAP, Vega A, Ortega E, Gonzalez A: Computed tomography of hepatic fascioliasis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11:269-272, 1987

Sinniah B, Binkley CE: Fasciolopsiasis-infection by Fasciolopsis buski. In: Connor DH, Chandler FW (eds): Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1427-1430

Takeyama N, Okumura N, Sakai Y, et al: Computed tomography findings of hepatic lesions in human fascioliasis: report of two cases. Am J Gastroenterol 81:1078-1081, 1986

Van Beers B, Pringot J, Geubel A, et al: Hepatobiliary fascioliasis: noninvasive imaging findings. Radiology 174:809-810, 1990

Vayre P, Robin B: Distomatose choledocienne decouverte par cholangiographie per-operatoire lors d'une cholecystite lithiasique. J Chir 96:553-556, 1968

Veerappan A, Siegel JH, Podany J, et al: Fasciola hepatica pancreatitis: endoscopic extraction of live parasites. Gastrointest Endos 37:473-475, 1991

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